Announcements :
• Dr. Muhammad Hanif Khalil has resumed the charge as Acting Director of the National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad w.e.f. 25-09-2023
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National Institute of Pakistan Studies
Name of ScholarMian Waheed uddin
Title of Dissertation Integration of Pakistani Immigrants in the Norwegian Society: Case Study of Forced Marriages in Pakistani Community (2002-2005)
Issue Date2014
PublisherNational Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Migration is basically a response by humans to a series of economic, social and political stimuli within the environment. The phenomenon of migration cannot be understood without analysing the dynamics and the interplay of demographic, economic, social and many other factors. Pakistan has been a country of emigration since after about a decade of its creation. In the 1950s and in the 1960s emigrants from Pakistan migrated to the United Kingdom, USA, Canada, and to a lesser extent to Australia. All of them were English speaking countries and the immigrants from Pakistan were students, doctors, engineers, accountants etc. went to these countries for higher studies or for jobs in the professional fields.

When saturation started to be felt in the European countries and immigration laws became tough and opportunities scarce, labour class immigrants from Pakistan started to move North and stepped into Denmark, the first of the Scandinavian countries. An immigration ban was slapped in Denmark in 1970 and the enterprising Pakistani immigrants started moving further North to Norway and began arriving in late 1960s and early 1970s. this was because of Norway’s liberal practice of granting work permits to semi-skilled and unskilled immigrant labour. Arriving Pakistanis, who were primarily economic migrants, started working at lowest level in the labour market (cleaners, construction workers, factory workers, etc.) and over a period of time, gradually moved on to better paying jobs in the services sectors.

With the passage of time, like other West European countries, Norway imposed a ban on immigration in 1975 since there was no longer a need for unskilled labour. The ban however only changed gender balance of the arriving immigrants and more women and children migrated from Pakistan to Norway during the second half of 1970s and into the 80s under family reunification program.

Hence, it is very important to know about the problems being faced by the expatriate communities in general and Pakistan community in particular, who adopted Norway as their homeland. They went through a long and cumbersome process to gain residential and citizen status and they were well aware about the fact they will have to compromise on their identity, culture, traditions, and self-respect.

For this study a holistic approach was adopted to address these issues and extensive surveys were undertaken, apart from employing other tools of social research. Results were compiled and documented for use by social scientists, academia, and policy formulators.

This research work is specially focusing on the forced marriages carried out with the Pakistani immigrants, young girls and boys, without their valid consent, and consequent issues.