Announcements :
• Dr. Muhammad Hanif Khalil has resumed the charge as Acting Director of the National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad w.e.f. 25-09-2023
• The Institute has announced BS, M. Phil, and PhD admissions (Fall-2023)
National Institute of Pakistan Studies
Name of ScholarMazhar Iqbal
Title of Dissertation Pakistan-USA Relations in Post-9/11: Cost-Benefit Analysis
Issue Date2019
PublisherNational Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Abstract In the Global War on Terror (GWOT), Pakistan’s cooperation with the USA in the post-9/11 period has become an important subject of discussion and analyses in and outside the country. The present study is an attempt to present a comprehensive examination and analyses of the cost-benefit calculus for Pakistan for its role in the GWOT. Its basic premise is the hypothesis that Pakistan incurred more costs that benefits it accrued in this relationship. This is verified by using the exploratory research with qualitative method through inductive logic which is based on empirical data analysed through descriptive analyses. The paradigm of realism is used to explain these relations in their cost-benefit context. It also reviews the historical background of the US-Pakistan relations to contextualize and understand the nature off their bilateral cooperation during this period. It is noteworthy that from 1947 to 2001, these relations enjoyed two phases of close cooperation i.e. from 1954 to 1962 and from 1979 to 1990 during which Pakistan derived great benefits but also paid huge costs for its cooperation with the USA. These relations had reached their lowest level till 9/11 incidents due to the USA-imposed three-tire nuclear as well as democracy-related sanctions on Pakistan during 1990s. However, the events of 9/11 once again changed the dimensions of their relations particularly when the USA decided to launch global war on terror from Afghanistan, and the government of General Pervez Musharraf in Pakistan felt that it had no option but to cooperate with the USA in this war. During this war, Pakistan made tremendous efforts and huge sacrifices due to which it considerably won the appreciation from the US-led Western alliance. However, the USA continued demanding Pakistan to ‘do more’ against the Afghan Taliban militants sheltered in safe havens and sanctuaries in Pakistan, as blamed by the USA, Afghan government and India, which the latter always denied. This tension continued haunting Pakistan-US relations during this period with periodical vicissitudes. But, the operative dynamics of the anti-terrorism cooperation kept these relations working in which, as premised, Pakistan suffered more losses that the benefits it accrued.