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National Institute of Pakistan Studies
Name of ScholarSyed Islam Shah
Title of Dissertation Socio-Economic Development in the Tribal Areas: A Case Study of Mohmand Agency (1975-85)
Issue Date1994
PublisherNational Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad

The thesis is the in-depth study of the tribal areas in regard to its socio-economic conditions, resources, facilities, needs and problems in various sectors, including Mohmand Agency, to which, a special reference has been made.

The study is based on library and field research survey findings. The library research was hampered by a dearth of materials concerning specifically to the present social and economic development of the tribal areas. There are few books which are helpful to the extent that they contain description of the landscape, the people, specific personalities, incidents, and the economy at a particular time and place. To fill this gape, efforts were made to collect up to date data and information from government publications and official government documents and files concerned with the development activities in the tribal areas.

The thesis consists of six chapters in addition to an introduction, conclusion, appendix and bibliography.

The introduction deals with the research methodology, adopted to collect necessary data and information, primarily from the field survey and documentary sources. The first chapter relates to physical, social and cultural characteristics of the Mohmand Agency, to which special reference has been made in the study. The second chapter discusses the administrative system of the tribal areas during the British rule, including the British Frontier Policy, Durand Line Agreement and the formation of NWFP province. A special reference has also been to the reasons for the hostile attitude of the tribesmen towards British policy of social and economic reform.

The third chapter describe the stricture, composition and administrative system of the tribal areas after the establishment of Pakistan in 1947. The salient features of this chapter are: the incorporation of the tribal areas in Pakistan; their status as “Special Areas” established by the 196 constitution; and their composition and constitutional status under the 1973 constitution of Pakistan.

Chapters four, five and six analyse the economic resources, potentials and various developmental programs initiated by successive government for the development of FATA, with special focus on Mohmand Agency.

The study concludes that after annexation with Pakistan, the tribal areas got so many changes. However, when it comes to its administration, it remained largely unchanged. The government chose to deal with the tribal areas indirectly through the Tribal Maliks. Jirga and FCR were the other pillars that helped in running the administration of the tribal areas.

After independence all the colonial approaches and tactics were discarded and the government adopted a policy of economic absorption, from which tangible result occurred. It attracted majority of the tribal people to participate in the affairs of their state and were soon able to achieve prominent position in both the private and public sectors. Increased economic activity by the government signifies that the government was interested in developing the tribal areas.

The central objective of this study is, therefore, to measure these contributions on the part of government, with regard to tribal areas development in general and the Mohmand Agency in particular.